Carnobacterium piscicola CP5, isolated from a French mold-ripened soft cheese, produced a bacteriocin activity named carnocin CP5, which inhibited Carnobacterium, Enterococcus and Listeria spp. strains, and among the Lactobacillus spp. only Lactobacillus delbrueckii spp. . The activity was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, anion exchange, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography followed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). This latter step separated two peaks with anti-listerial activity (CP51 and CP52). Carnocin CP51 was partially sequenced, and the N-terminal part revealed the presence of the "pediocin-like consensus" sequence-Tyr-Gly-Asn-Gly-Val-. Then, a degenerated 24-mer oligonucleotide probe was constructed from the N-terminal sequence and used to detect the structural gene. It was localized on a plasmid of about 40 kb. Cloning of restriction fragments of this one, followed by DNA sequencing, revealed the presence of the second anti-Listeria bacteriocin gene (CP52). By comparing sequences in data banks and confirming results with PCR reactions, carnocin CP51 shared homologies with carnobacteriocin BM1, and carnocin CP52 was similar to carnobacteriocin B2, both produced by C. piscicola LV17 . However, carnobacteriocin A from C. piscicola LV17 gene was lacking in C. piscicola CP5, and the two microorganisms have been isolated from different ecological environments: C. piscicola CP5 and C. piscicola LV17 were isolated from soft cheese and vacuum-packed meat respectively. This fact could allow different application perspectives for C. piscicola CP5.