The relationship between moderate hyperopia and academic achievement: how much plus is enough?

J Am Optom Assoc. 1997 Oct;68(10):648-50.


Background: There is evidence linking uncorrected hyperopia in children with academic learning problems.

Methods: This study was designed to test that hypothesis and--given supportive data--to then address a second topic: the minimal amount of uncorrected hyperopia that appears to impede elementary school performance.

Results: The refractive status and achievement test scores of 782 first-through-fifth grade children were compared.

Conclusions: Statistical analysis indicated significantly lower achievement test scores among hyperopic children whose refractive errors exceeded 1.25 D (ANOVA F = 12.51; df = 4; p = 0.014).

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Educational Status*
  • Eyeglasses
  • Humans
  • Hyperopia / psychology*
  • Hyperopia / therapy
  • Learning / physiology
  • Optometry / methods
  • Refraction, Ocular