The dopamine D3 receptor is expressed primarily in regions of the brain that are thought to influence motivation and motor functions. To specify in vivo D3 receptor function, we generated mutant mice lacking this receptor. Our analysis indicates that in a novel environment, D3 mutant mice are transiently more active than wild-type mice, an effect not associated with anxiety state. Moreover, D3 mutant mice exhibit enhanced behavioral sensitivity to combined injections of D1 and D2 class receptor agonists, cocaine and amphetamine. However, the combined electrophysiological effects of the same D1 and D2 agonists on single neurons within the nucleus accumbens were not altered by the D3 receptor mutation. We conclude that one function of the D3 receptor is to modulate behaviors by inhibiting the cooperative effects of postsynaptic D1 and other D2 class receptors at systems level.