p21/waf1/cip1 and mdm-2 expression in breast carcinoma patients as related to prognosis

Int J Cancer. 1997 Oct 21;74(5):529-34. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1097-0215(19971021)74:5<529::aid-ijc9>3.0.co;2-5.


p21/waf1/cip1 and mdm-2 are downstream effectors of p53. p21 plays a major role in negatively regulating cell-cycle progression, while mdm-2 inhibits p53 effects, and its role has been implicated in oncogenesis. In this study, we investigated the expression profiles of p21, mdm-2 and p53 in human breast-carcinoma tissues. The aim was to determine whether a correlation exists between the expression profiles of these markers and tumor differentiation, ER status and prognosis. We studied tumor specimens obtained from 106 patients and found a highly significant association among low histology grade, p53 over-expression, high mdm-2 expression and lack of p21 expression. Our studies also demonstrate that, in human breast cancer, low levels of p21 and higher mdm-2 levels directly correlate with the onset of lymph-node metastases and shortened patient survival. Furthermore, the expression profiles of p21, mdm-2 and p53 were independently correlated with patient survival.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Breast Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • Cell Differentiation / physiology
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21
  • Cyclins / biosynthesis*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Lymphatic Metastasis
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis*
  • Nuclear Proteins*
  • Phenotype
  • Prognosis
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / biosynthesis*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2
  • Receptors, Estrogen / analysis
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis


  • CDKN1A protein, human
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21
  • Cyclins
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Receptors, Estrogen
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • MDM2 protein, human
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2