To estimate the prevalence of both clinically evident and asymptomatic carriage of fluconazole-resistant Candida, we prospectively surveyed 128 adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The patients had an average CD4 cell count of 206/mm3. Ninety-seven isolates of Candida were obtained from the oropharynx of 82 patients (64%). Of these 82 patients, 76% carried C. albicans alone; 18%, both albicans and non-albicans isolates; and 6%, non-albicans species alone. Oropharyngeal candidiasis was evident in only 38 (46%) of the 82 patients for whom a culture was positive and was never seen unless C. albicans was present. When MICs were measured by using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards M27-T methodology and grouped by using recently proposed breakpoints, we found that eight of the 38 patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis and six of the 44 patients who were asymptomatically colonized carried C. albicans isolates resistant to fluconazole (MIC, > or = 64 micrograms/mL); estimated rates of carriage were 21% (95% confidence interval, 10%-37%) and 14% (95% confidence interval, 5%-27%), respectively. Carriage of resistant isolates of C. albicans by HIV-infected adults is more common than previously suspected, and clinicians should be alert to the possible need for either higher doses of fluconazole or alternative treatment modalities.