Quantitative three-dimensional echocardiography by rapid imaging from multiple transthoracic windows: in vitro validation and initial in vivo studies

J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 1997 Oct;10(8):830-9. doi: 10.1016/s0894-7317(97)70043-9.


Three-dimensional echocardiography has demonstrated superiority over two-dimensional techniques in the determination of left ventricular mass and volumes. We describe a technique based on a magnetic tracking system which provides rapid three-dimensional image acquisition from multiple acoustic windows. Interactive three-dimensional border tracking and reconstruction with a piecewise smooth subdivision model accurately reproduced phantom volume (calculated volume = 1.00 true volume - 0.6 ml, r = 1.000, standard error of the estimate = 1.3 ml), in vitro heart volume (calculated volume = 1.02 true volume - 1.3 ml, r = 1.000, standard error of the estimate = 0.4 ml), in vitro heart mass (calculated mass = 0.98 true mass + 1.4 gm, r = 0.998, standard error of the estimate = 2.5 gm), and in vivo stroke volume (calculated stroke volume = 1.18 Doppler stroke volume - 17.9 ml, r = 0.990, standard error of the estimate = 2.8 ml). The three-dimensional in vivo data sets, which include views from three acoustic windows, were acquired in less than 90 seconds. We conclude that this method of three-dimensional echocardiographic data acquisition and analysis overcomes limitations inherent in currently available systems.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cardiac Volume
  • Cattle
  • Echocardiography / methods*
  • Heart Ventricles / diagnostic imaging*
  • Humans
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods*
  • Phantoms, Imaging
  • Reference Values
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Stroke Volume