We have identified a gene, afp-1, that encodes a new subfamily of six FMRFamide-like neuropeptides in the nematode Ascaris suum. The predicted peptides share the C-terminal sequence PGVLRF-NH2 but have different N-terminal extensions. We discuss possible functional roles of these different peptides based upon experiments with Ascaris as well as results from other organisms. Three of the peptides were previously isolated from extracts of A. suum (4) and three other are novel sequences. The translated product of afp-1 is a precursor protein containing two main halves: a C-terminal region containing a series of putative peptides separated by characteristic processing sites and a relatively hydrophobic N-terminal region with no obvious peptides. Although the overall structure of the translated product of afp-1 is similar to flp-1 from C. elegans (18), there is little evidence for homology between the two nematode neuropeptide genes. At least four different transcripts of afp-1 have been identified. These transcripts differ in their 3' and 5' untranslated regions, and one of the transcripts predicts a truncated precursor protein which contains only the C-terminal peptide-containing region.