Th1-type immunity is incompatible with successful pregnancy

Immunol Today. 1997 Oct;18(10):478-82. doi: 10.1016/s0167-5699(97)01127-4.


Several years ago, the rather provocative question was raised: is successful pregnancy a T helper 2 (Th2) phenomenon? Implicit in this argument is the corollary that unsuccessful pregnancy is a Th1-type situation. Here, evidence from murine and human pregnancy is presented to show that, since Th1-type cytokines mediate pregnancy loss, a shift towards Th1-type immunity may help resolve 'unexplained' pregnancy failure.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Abortion, Spontaneous / immunology
  • Abortion, Spontaneous / prevention & control
  • Animals
  • Cytokines / immunology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy
  • Mice
  • Pregnancy / immunology*
  • Th1 Cells / immunology*
  • Th2 Cells / immunology


  • Cytokines