The recent development of selective and highly potent nonpeptide antagonists for peptide receptors has constituted a major breakthrough in the field of neuropeptide research. Following the discovery of the first nonpeptide antagonists for peptide receptors ten years ago, numerous other antagonists have been developed for most neuropeptide families. These new, metabolically stable compounds, orally active and capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier, offer clear advantages over the previously available peptide antagonists. Nonpeptide antagonists have provided valuable tools to investigate peptide receptors at the molecular, pharmacological and anatomical levels, and have considerably advanced our understanding of the pathophysiological roles of peptides in the CNS and periphery. Evidence from animal and clinical studies suggests that nonpeptide antagonists binding to peptide receptors could be useful for the treatment of disease states associated with high levels of neuropeptides. In this article Catalina Batancur, Mounia Azzi and William Rostène will address the recent developments in nonpeptide antagonists for neuropeptide receptors, with a particular focus on their CNS actions.