Liposomes have been widely used to enhance the immune response. In the present investigation, we studied their in vivo immunomodulation of an HIV-1-specific DNA vaccine candidate (pCMV160/REV) constructed with the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter-conjugated HIV-1 env and rev DNA plasmids. By immunizing with pCMV160/REV and cationic liposomes through various routes (intramuscular, intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, intradermal, and intranasal), we induced higher levels of both antibody production and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) than by using DNA vaccine alone. The HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity was observed to be stronger on immunization with the DNA vaccine and cationic liposome combination. The intramuscular, intraperitoneal, and intranasal inoculation routes were more effective in inducing strong DTH and antibody responses than the subcutaneous and intradermal routes. Taken together, these results suggest that cationic liposomes can be highly effective when used with DNA vaccines and administered by various routes.