Replication of zidovudine-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains (containing the 41 Met-->Leu and 215 Thr-->Tyr mutations in reverse transcriptase [RT]) was inhibited to a significantly greater extent by the combination of lamivudine and quinoxaline HBY 097 than by either drug alone or even fully suppressed by concomitant HBY 097 and lamivudine administration at relatively low concentrations. The virus recovered after exposure to the drug combinations individually had acquired the 103 Lys-->Arg, 138 Glu-->Lys, 184 Met-->Ile, and 189 Val-->Ile mutations in the genetic zidovudine-resistance background of zidovudine-resistant HIV-1. These mutants retained marked sensitivity to HBY 097. The genotypic zidovudine-resistance mutations were maintained in the mutant virus RT genomes, and the viruses also remained phenotypically resistant to zidovudine. Given the exquisite potency of the combination of lamivudine and HBY 097 in suppressing viral replication, this combination should be further pursued in clinical trials examining treatment of HIV-1-infected persons.