Use of carbamylated hemoglobin concentration to differentiate acute from chronic renal failure in dogs

Am J Vet Res. 1997 Nov;58(11):1193-6.


Objective: To determine usefulness of carbamylated hemoglobin (CarHb) concentration for differentiation of acute renal failure (ARF) from chronic renal failure (CRF) in dogs.

Sample population: Samples from dogs with ARF or CRF and from nonazotemic control dogs.

Procedure: CarHb concentration was determined in heparinized blood samples by measuring the micrograms of valine hydantoin (VH) per gram of hemoglobin (Hb), using a high-performance liquid chromatography assay, in which carbamyl valine is converted to VH via acid hydrolysis.

Results: CarHb concentration was significantly higher in dogs with ARF and CRF, compared with values in control dogs (ARF vs control, P < 0.05; CRF vs control, P < 0.001). Furthermore, CarHb concentration was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in dogs with CRF, compared with that in dogs with ARF. Carbamylated hemoglobin concentration did not correlate with serum urea nitrogen or creatinine concentration. Using a cutoff value of 100 micrograms of VH/g of Hb, the sensitivity and specificity of CarHb concentration for differentiating ARF from CRF was 96.1 and 84.2%, respectively.

Conclusions: CarHb concentration was useful in the differentiation of ARF from CRF in the dogs of this study.

Clinical relevance: CarHb concentration may be used to increase the accuracy of identifying ARF, so that early, aggressive management can be instituted, thereby increasing the chance of recovery.

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury / blood
  • Acute Kidney Injury / diagnosis
  • Acute Kidney Injury / veterinary*
  • Animals
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / methods
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / veterinary
  • Creatinine / blood
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Dog Diseases / blood*
  • Dog Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Dogs
  • Female
  • Hemoglobin A / analogs & derivatives*
  • Hemoglobin A / analysis
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / blood
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / diagnosis
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / veterinary*
  • Male
  • Nitrogen / blood
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Urea / blood


  • hemoglobin A, carbamylated
  • Urea
  • Hemoglobin A
  • Creatinine
  • Nitrogen