Previous investigations of the major surface antigen (SAG1) promoter of Toxoplasma gondii indicated an ability to function bi-directionally in transient transformation assays at least. This suggests there might be another tachyzoite-specific gene being divergently transcribed from the SAG1 promoter in its normal chromosomal location. To investigate this possibility we have characterized the region upstream of SAG1 and report here a co-directional transcription unit coding for a probable GPI-anchored surface protein with homology to SAG1 and SAG3. This antigen, which had not previously been identified in surface iodination experiments is given the acronym SRS1, for SAG1-related sequence 1. Genomic organization and sequence of a full-length cDNA of SRS1 are presented. Antisera against a recombinant SRS1 protein produced in Escherichia coli, recognize a specific band of 46 kDa in parasite lysates which corresponds to the largest of the GPI-anchored proteins by Western blot. The possible role of this previously unidentified surface antigen is discussed.