Mucosal immunization with recombinant adenoviruses: induction of immunity and protection of cotton rats against respiratory bovine herpesvirus type 1 infection

J Gen Virol. 1997 Nov;78 ( Pt 11):2933-43. doi: 10.1099/0022-1317-78-11-2933.


To facilitate the evaluation of vaccines against bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1), a cotton rat model of intranasal (i.n.) BHV-1 infection was established. Cotton rat lung cells were similar to bovine cells in their ability to support BHV-1 replication in vitro. Furthermore, i.n. inoculation of cotton rats with BHV-1 resulted in pulmonary lesions comparable to BHV-1 infection in cattle. Using this model, the potential of i.n. and gastrointestinal (g.i.) immunization was examined with recombinant human adenoviruses expressing glycoprotein D (gD) of BHV-1 to induce protective immunity against BHV-1. The replication-competent virus (gD-dE3) was more efficient than the replication-defective virus (gD-dE1E3) in inducing gD-specific antibody in the serum and in the respiratory tract. Furthermore, i.n. immunization with gD-dE3 stimulated antigen-specific antibody-secreting cells in the lung 12 weeks following immunization. Protection against BHV-1 challenge correlated with gD-specific antibody levels such that i.n. immunization with gD-dE3 conferred complete protection, while g.i. immunization conferred only partial protection of the lungs of most animals against BHV-1 challenge. In comparison, immunization with gD-dE1E3 by either route resulted in only a partial reduction of BHV-1 titre in the respiratory tract. The results obtained demonstrate that mucosal immunization with replication-competent recombinant adenovirus expressing gD of BHV-1 can induce immunity and protection against BHV-1 challenge.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cattle
  • Female
  • Herpesviridae Infections / immunology*
  • Herpesviridae Infections / prevention & control
  • Herpesvirus 1, Bovine*
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Mucosal*
  • Immunization
  • Male
  • Rats
  • Sigmodontinae
  • Vaccines, Synthetic / administration & dosage
  • Vaccines, Synthetic / immunology*
  • Viral Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Viral Vaccines / immunology*


  • Vaccines, Synthetic
  • Viral Vaccines