A nonradioactive, simple, sensitive fluorescence polarization assay was developed to assay protein tyrosine kinase activity. This assay involves incubation of a fluorescenylated peptide substrate with the kinase, ATP, and anti-phosphotyrosine antibody. The phosphorylated peptide product is immunocomplexed with the anti-phosphotyrosine antibody resulting in an increase in the polarization signal as measured in a fluorescence polarization analyzer. Among several anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies examined, monoclonal antibody PY54 was found to give the best polarization signal with the test peptide. For validation of the fluorescence polarization assay, Lck activity was compared with a 32PO4 transfer assay. In both the fluorescence polarization and 32PO4 transfer assays, Lck activity showed a similar dependence on ATP, Lck enzyme, and peptide substrate concentrations. Both assays gave similar inhibition constants with a known tyrosine kinase inhibitor staurosporine and the Lck inhibitor, 4-amino-5-(methylphenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine. These results show that the fluorescence polarization assay can detect inhibitors and is comparable to the 32PO4 transfer assay. The fluorescence polarization method is advantageous compared to the 32PO4 transfer assay or ELISA or DELFIA because it is a one-step assay that does not involve several washings, liquid transfer, and sample preparation steps. It has the added advantage of using nonisotopic substrates. The fluorescence polarization assay thus is environmentally safe and minimizes handling problems. The homogeneous nature of the assay makes it readily adaptable to high-throughput screening for small-molecule drug discovery.
Copyright 1997 Academic Press.