Restoration of motor function is relatively common in humans and non-human primates. Studies of the behavioral aspects of recovery indicate that responses re-emerge in a fixed sequence that resembles initial acquisition. The extent to which this occurs depends on factors unique to the subject. Research suggests that the traditional view of a hierarchically organized brain is inaccurate. Instead, the brain is comprised of parallel circuits which may be disinhibited and/or recruited when damage occurs. In some cases, damage leads to reorganization of cerebral cortical maps. Available data point to the utility of interventions to promote recovery. Research suggests that recovery from other forms of impairment (e.g., non-vascular lesions or impairment in language) involves similar processes.