Thoracoscopy is currently undergoing a revival in the surgical world. As the role of thoracoscopy increases in the general thoracic surgery arena, the indications for the technique in the care of trauma patients is also expanding. Trauma surgeons are investigating both diagnostic and therapeutic indications. Penetrating thoracoabdominal trauma is a proven indication to evaluate the diaphragm for possible violation. Investigation of thoracic hemorrhage with identification of bleeding sites, evacuation of hemothorax, and control of ongoing blood loss have all been reported successfully via the thoracoscope. Recent reports have sited isolated patients were diaphragmatic repair has been accomplished with endoscopic techniques. Other indications await the improvement of techniques and instruments, and the imagination of future surgeons.