A case of the nephrotic syndrome with unilateral renal vein thrombosis is reported. The patient, an 18 year old man, presented with a six month history of edema and the recent development of a left-sided varicocele. An enlarged left kidney and a thrombus in the left renal vein were demonstrated roentgenographically. A biopsy specimen of the right kidney was interpreted as membranous glomerulonephritis. Selective renal function studies showed nearly identical creatinine excretion, and similar total protein excretion and protein selectivity from each kidney. Thus, the thrombus in the left renal vein did not influence glomerular filtration rate or quantitative or qualitative protein excretion. A high urinary output and a decreased serum level of antithrombin III were measured. These findings suggest a mechanism to explain the increased thrombotic tendency seen in this and other patients with the nephrotic syndrome.