Morphometric analysis of magnetic resonance (MR) scans in 88 traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients demonstrated significantly larger ventricle-to-brain ratios (VBR) and temporal horn volumes, and significantly smaller fornix-to-brain ratios (FBR) and corpus callosum (CC) area measurements, compared to 73 controls. Additionally, TBI patients were grouped according to Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) for a within-TBI sample comparison so that severity of injury on brain morphology could be examined. The severe TBI group (GCS = 3-6) differed from the mild and moderate injury groups on measures of the internal capsule, VBR, temporal horn volume, and CC. In a separate analysis wherein the TBI subjects were grouped by degree of fornix atrophy, the group with the smallest fornix size demonstrated the lowest memory performance. Furthermore, anatomic measures correlated with severity of injury, and tests of memory and motor function. Results demonstrate the diffuse nature of degeneration in TBI with more severe injury, and that quantified MR identified morphologic changes relate to neuropsychological outcome.