The current review was conducted to address the ongoing debate regarding the presence or absence of neuropsychological impairment in asymptomatic HIV-Type 1 (HIV-1) seropositive individuals. Results were summarized from 57 studies that compared the performances of seropositive asymptomatic and seronegative individuals. Overall, the differences observed between median rates of impairment for asymptomatic (35%) and seronegative (12%) groups provided the clearest indication of deficits in asymptomatics. In addition, five variables were examined as possible contributors to inconsistencies found in the literature: mode of infection, test battery type, test battery size, sample size, and method of data analysis. Of these variables, only mode of infection and test battery size appeared to substantially influence the outcome of the studies reviewed with regard to identifying neuropsychological impairment in asymptomatics.