Arabidopsis thaliana accession La-er was susceptible, and accession Ms-0 was resistant, to powdery mildew diseases caused by Erysiphe cruciferarum UEA1 and E. cichoracearum UCSC1. The resistance reaction phenotype of A. thaliana Ms-0 to both pathogens was characterized, and the resistance loci were genetically mapped. Growth of E. cruciferarum UEA1 on Ms-0 leaves was arrested after formation of the first appressorium: the underlying host epidermal cell collapsed, and occasionally there was necrosis of one or two host mesophyll cells. Growth of E. cichoracearum UCSC1 on Ms-0 leaves was arrested after emergence of several germ tubes from the conidium, and there was necrosis of host mesophyll cells at the sites of infection. Examination of F2 progeny of a cross La-er x Ms-0 indicated that two independently-segregating dominant loci were required for resistance to E. cruciferarum UEA1. One locus, named RPW6, was genetically mapped to chromosome 5, in a 5.6 cM interval flanked by pCITf16 and PI. The other locus, named RPW7, mapped to chromosome 3 in a 8.5 cM interval flanked by CDC2A and AFC1. Independent effects of RPW6 and RPW7 on E. cruciferarum UEA1 could be detected by quantitative measurements of growth of mycelium and production of conidia. Resistance to E. cichoracearum UCSC1 mapped to a single locus, named RPW8, at a location on chromosome 3 which we could not distinguish from RPW7. Evidently, RPW7 and RPW8 define either a complex resistance locus, or a common resistance gene with dual specificity.