Acute renal failure after coronary intervention: incidence, risk factors, and relationship to mortality

Am J Med. 1997 Nov;103(5):368-75. doi: 10.1016/s0002-9343(97)00150-2.


Purpose: This study set out to define the incidence, predictors, and mortality related to acute renal failure (ARF) and acute renal failure requiring dialysis (ARFD) after coronary intervention.

Patients and methods: Derivation-validation set methods were used in 1,826 consecutive patients undergoing coronary intervention with evaluation of baseline creatinine clearance (CrCl), diabetic status, contrast exposure, postprocedure creatinine, ARF, ARFD, in-hospital mortality, and long-term survival (derivation set). Multiple logistic regression was used to derive the prior probability of ARFD in a second set of 1,869 consecutive patients (validation set).

Results: The incidence of ARF and ARFD was 144.6/1,000 and 7.7/1,000 cases respectively. The cutoff dose of contrast below which there was no ARFD was 100 mL. No patient with a CrCl > 47 mL/min developed ARFD. These thresholds were confirmed in the validation set. Multivariate analysis found CrCl [odds ratio (OR) = 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77 to 0.89, P <0.00001], diabetes (OR = 5.47, 95% CI 1.40 to 21.32, P = 0.01), and contrast dose (OR = 1.008, 95% CI 1.002 to 1.013, P = 0.01) to be independent predictors of ARFD. Patients in the validation set who underwent dialysis had a predicted prior probability of ARFD of between 0.07 and 0.73. The in-hospital mortality for those who developed ARFD was 35.7% and the 2-year survival was 18.8%.

Conclusion: The occurrence of ARFD after coronary intervention is rare (<1%) but is associated with high in-hospital mortality and poor long-term survival. Individual patient risk can be estimated from calculated CrCl, diabetic status, and expected contrast dose prior to a proposed coronary intervention.

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury / blood
  • Acute Kidney Injury / etiology*
  • Acute Kidney Injury / mortality*
  • Acute Kidney Injury / physiopathology
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Blood Urea Nitrogen
  • Contrast Media / adverse effects
  • Coronary Disease / blood
  • Coronary Disease / mortality*
  • Coronary Disease / physiopathology
  • Coronary Disease / therapy*
  • Creatinine / blood
  • Diabetes Complications
  • Female
  • Hospital Mortality
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Odds Ratio
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Risk Factors
  • Stroke Volume


  • Contrast Media
  • Creatinine