Limb, genital, CNS, and facial malformations result from gene/environment-induced cholesterol deficiency: further evidence for a link to sonic hedgehog

Am J Med Genet. 1997 Nov 28;73(1):24-31.


Low cholesterol levels produced by treating cholesterol deficient mutant mice with a cholesterol synthesis inhibitor (BM 15.766) between days 4 to 7 of pregnancy resulted in malformations consistent with those in the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS). Facial anomalies in mildly affected gestational day 12 mouse embryos included a small nose and long upper lip; in more severely affected embryos, the facial and forebrain anomalies are representative of holoprosencephaly. Additionally, abnormalities of the mid- and hind-brain were observed and included stenosis of the cerebral aqueduct at the level of the isthmus and apparent absence of the organ progenitor for the cerebellar vermis. Although not previously directly linked to cholesterol deficiency in experimental animals, limb and external genital defects were a notable outcome in this multifactorially-based cholesterol deficiency model. The results of this study provide new evidence supporting an important role for cholesterol in early embryonic development, provide additional support for the hypothesis that this role may involve the function of specific gene products, such as sonic hedgehog (shh) signaling protein, and provide a description of the pathogenesis of some of the characteristic malformations in SLOS.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apolipoproteins B / genetics
  • Apolipoproteins B / metabolism
  • Central Nervous System / abnormalities*
  • Cholesterol / blood
  • Cholesterol / deficiency*
  • Face / abnormalities*
  • Female
  • Genitalia / abnormalities*
  • Hedgehog Proteins
  • Limb Deformities, Congenital*
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred ICR
  • Piperazines / pharmacology
  • Pregnancy
  • Proteins / metabolism*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Trans-Activators*


  • Apolipoproteins B
  • Hedgehog Proteins
  • Piperazines
  • Proteins
  • Trans-Activators
  • BM 15766
  • Cholesterol