The 1990 Iran earthquake affected two states with a combined population of 2,300,000. It resulted in at least 13,888 deaths, 43,390 injured, and 33,616 hospitalized. The overall mortality among hospitalized patients was 0.17%. Acute renal failure (ARF) requiring dialysis support was diagnosed in 156 patients nationwide, with a mortality rate of 14%. Three teaching hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (UMS) admitted 495 patients, with total mortality of 7.5%. Of these, 30 patients (6%) required dialysis, with a mortality of 40%, accounting for 12 of the deaths. On admission, patients with ARF were more severely injured and had significantly higher incidence of multiple trauma; peripheral nerve injury; elevated muscle enzymes, potassium, and phosphorus; and abnormal urinalysis. In one of these hospitals, patients were treated with a specific hydration protocol coupled with a cautious approach to fasciotomy. The incidence of ARF, mortality associated with ARF, and fasciotomy were lower in this group. Based on these findings, guidelines are suggested that may be helpful in the treatment of ARF in earthquake victims.