New members of the butyrophilin (BT) gene family have been identified by cDNA and genomic cloning. Six genes are described: BT2. 1, 2.2, 2.3, and BT3.1, 3.2, and 3.3. BT2, BT3, and BT form three distinct subfamilies sharing about 95% amino acid identity at the intra subfamily level and 50% identity at the interfamily level. All the BT2 and BT3 subfamily members map close to BT in the juxta-telomeric region of the major histocompatibility complex. The BT2 members have the canonical structural organization of BT, i.e., two immunoglobulin domains followed by a transmembrane anchor and a B30.2 intracytoplasmic domain. In the BT3 subfamily, only BT3.3 has the structural organization of BT. The two other genes, BT3.1 and BT3.2, code for putative protein without the B30.2 domain. In the case of BT3.2, this is due to an Alu insertion in the B30.2 coding exon, leading to a new polyadenylation site.