Tissue engineering and the development of Apligraf, a human skin equivalent

Clin Ther. Sep-Oct 1997;19(5):894-905. doi: 10.1016/s0149-2918(97)80043-4.


In recent years, skin grafting has evolved from the initial autograft and allograft preparations to biosynthetic and tissue-engineered living skin replacements. This review details the pioneering work of numerous investigators that led to the following precursors of tissue-engineered skin replacement: cultured autologous keratinocyte grafts, cultured allogeneic keratinocyte grafts, autologous/allogeneic composites, acellular collagen matrices, and cellular matrices. It also discusses the rationale for the development of the newer products and describes the technical advances leading to the development of Apligraf, a tissue-engineered human skin product.

Publication types

  • Duplicate Publication
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomedical Engineering*
  • Cell Culture Techniques / methods
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Collagen*
  • Humans
  • Keratinocytes / physiology
  • Skin Transplantation*
  • Skin, Artificial*


  • Apligraf
  • Collagen