Phenomenological experience in response to monotonous drumming and hypnotizability

Am J Clin Hypn. 1997 Oct;40(2):130-45. doi: 10.1080/00029157.1997.10403417.


Participants (N = 206) experienced 15-min of monotonous drumming either before or after hypnosis (Harvard scale). Participants completed the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory (PCI) in reference to the last 4-min of drumming. Stimulus order did not affect the objective trance levels as measured by the Harvard scores. The subjective trance level as measured by hypnoidal scores (predicted Harvard scores from the PCI) was significantly higher when drumming preceded hypnosis. Participants' estimated average trance level achieved during drumming fell in the medium range of susceptibility (5-8) (Pekala, 1995). Participants who achieved higher hypnoidal and Harvard scores were more likely to report relaxed feelings and shamanic-type experiences in narratives about their subjective experiences during drumming.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Attention*
  • Awareness
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypnosis*
  • Male
  • Music Therapy*
  • Personality Inventory
  • Shamanism
  • Treatment Outcome