While numerous theories have been proposed for the evolution of genomic imprinting, few have been tested. The conflict theory proposes that imprinting is an intra-individual manifestation of classical parent-offspring conflict. This theory is unique in predicting that imprinted genes expressed from the paternally derived genome should be enhancers of pre- and post-natal growth, while those expressed from the maternally derived genome should be growth suppressors. We examine this prediction by reviewing the literature on growth of human and mouse progeny that have inherited both copies (or part thereof) of a particular chromosome from only one parent. Perhaps surprisingly, we find that much of the data do not support the hypothesis.