Acute postoperative renal failure is a common complication of thoracic aorta, thoracoabdominal aorta, or aortic arch surgery. To identify variables associated with acute postoperative renal failure, we prospectively studied 475 consecutive patients undergoing thoracoabdominal aortic surgery over a 12-yr period, including those requiring emergent surgery. One hundred twenty-one (25%) patients developed acute postoperative renal failure, and 39 (8%) required hemodialysis. Using multivariate analysis, acute postoperative renal failure was significantly associated with the following variables: age >50 yr (odds ratio [OR] 2.90 [95% confidence interval 1.52-5.53]), preoperative serum creatinine >120 micromol/L (OR 2.76 [1.70-4.48]), duration of left kidney ischemia >30 min (OR 2.01 [1.27-3.17]), packed red cells administration >5 units (OR 2.04 [1.24-3.37]), and Cell-Saver administration >5 units (OR 2.31 [1.34-1.96]). Reimplantation of visceral, renal arteries and the Adamkievicz artery; duration of visceral, spinal, and right kidney ischemia; requirement for fresh frozen plasma; administration of aprotinin; extracorporeal circulation; and procedures with circulatory arrest and profound hypothermia were not predictive of postoperative renal failure. In addition, age >50 yr (OR 5.59 [1.31-23.91]), requirement for packed red blood cells >5 unit (OR 3.91 [1.58-9.67]), and preoperative serum creatinine concentration >120 micromol/L (OR 2.26 [1.13-4.53]) were independent factors for acute renal failure requiring hemodialysis. In conclusion, acute renal failure is often observed after thoracic aortic surgery. Numerous predictive factors must be considered when evaluating the etiology of this complication.
Implications: Acute postoperative renal insufficiency is a common complication of thoracic aortic surgery. This study found that age >50 yr, preoperative renal dysfunction, duration of renal ischemia, and amount of blood transfusion are significant predictors of this complication.