Long-term creatine intake is beneficial to muscle performance during resistance training

J Appl Physiol (1985). 1997 Dec;83(6):2055-63. doi: 10.1152/jappl.1997.83.6.2055.


The effects of oral creatine supplementation on muscle phosphocreatine (PCr) concentration, muscle strength, and body composition were investigated in young female volunteers (n = 19) during 10 wk of resistance training (3 h/wk). Compared with placebo, 4 days of high-dose creatine intake (20 g/day) increased (P < 0.05) muscle PCr concentration by 6%. Thereafter, this increase was maintained during 10 wk of training associated with low-dose creatine intake (5 g/day). Compared with placebo, maximal strength of the muscle groups trained, maximal intermittent exercise capacity of the arm flexors, and fat-free mass were increased 20-25, 10-25, and 60% more (P < 0. 05), respectively, during creatine supplementation. Muscle PCr and strength, intermittent exercise capacity, and fat-free mass subsequently remained at a higher level in the creatine group than in the placebo group during 10 wk of detraining while low-dose creatine was continued. Finally, on cessation of creatine intake, muscle PCr in the creatine group returned to normal within 4 wk. It is concluded that long-term creatine supplementation enhances the progress of muscle strength during resistance training in sedentary females.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Triphosphate / metabolism
  • Adult
  • Body Composition / drug effects
  • Creatine / pharmacology*
  • Creatine / urine
  • Diet
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Muscle, Skeletal / drug effects
  • Muscle, Skeletal / metabolism
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiology*
  • Phosphocreatine / metabolism
  • Physical Fitness / physiology*
  • Weight Lifting / physiology*


  • Phosphocreatine
  • Adenosine Triphosphate
  • Creatine