Carcinoma of the prostate gland is one of the most common malignancies in males. This study was undertaken to determine which factors predict the course and outcome of patients treated with first line hormonal manipulation. A total of 144 patients with Stage D2 prostate cancer who received androgen deprivation therapy were studied. Pretreatment parameters analyzed were age, performance status, analgesia usage, concurrent disease, histologic differentiation, hemoglobin, leukocyte and platelet count, serum creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, prostate specific antigen, total and prostatic acid phosphatase, serum testosterone, follicle stimulating and luteinizing hormone levels, number of metastatic sites and bone scan grade. Only initial serum testosterone (> 10 nmol/l) had a positive impact on response (p = 0.0304), whereas age older than 60 years had a positive impact on time to progression (16 vs. 11 months, p = 0.0414). Both serum testosterone (26 vs. 20 months, p = 0.003), and age (28 vs. 17 months, p = 0.036) had a significant influence on overall survival. Low testosterone, indicating androgen independence, and a younger age, seem to result in a more aggressive disease and a poorer prognosis in advanced prostate cancer.