Information analysis of Fis binding sites

Nucleic Acids Res. 1997 Dec 15;25(24):4994-5002. doi: 10.1093/nar/25.24.4994.


Originally discovered in the bacteriophage Mu DNA inversion system gin, Fis (Factor for Inversion Stimulation) regulates many genetic systems. To determine the base frequency conservation required for Fis to locate its binding sites, we collected a set of 60 experimentally defined wild-type Fis DNA binding sequences. The sequence logo for Fis binding sites showed the significance and likely kinds of base contacts, and these are consistent with available experimental data. Scanning with an information theory based weight matrix within fis, nrd, tgt/sec and gin revealed Fis sites not previously identified, but for which there are published footprinting and biochemical data. DNA mobility shift experiments showed that a site predicted to be 11 bases from the proximal Salmonella typhimurium hin site and a site predicted to be 7 bases from the proximal P1 cin site are bound by Fis in vitro. Two predicted sites separated by 11 bp found within the nrd promoter region, and one in the tgt/sec promoter, were also confirmed by gel shift analysis. A sequence in aldB previously reported to be a Fis site, for which information theory predicts no site, did not shift. These results demonstrate that information analysis is useful for predicting Fis DNA binding.

MeSH terms

  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism*
  • Base Sequence
  • Binding Sites
  • Carrier Proteins / genetics
  • Carrier Proteins / metabolism*
  • DNA / chemistry
  • DNA / metabolism*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism*
  • Escherichia coli / genetics
  • Escherichia coli / metabolism
  • Escherichia coli Proteins*
  • Factor For Inversion Stimulation Protein
  • Integration Host Factors
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Nucleic Acid Conformation
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • Protein Binding
  • RNA / chemistry
  • RNA / metabolism*
  • RNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • RNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism*


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Carrier Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Escherichia coli Proteins
  • Factor For Inversion Stimulation Protein
  • Integration Host Factors
  • RNA-Binding Proteins
  • integration host factor, E coli
  • RNA
  • DNA