The identity of DNA replication proteins and cell cycle regulatory proteins which can be found in complexes involving PCNA were investigated by the use of PCNA immobilized on Sepharose 4B. A column containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) bound to Sepharose was used as a control. Fetal calf thymus extracts were chromatographed on PCNA-Sepharose and BSA-Sepharose. The columns were washed and then eluted with 0.5 M KCl. The salt eluates were examined for the presence of both DNA replication proteins (Pol alpha, delta, straightepsilon, PCNA, RFC, RFA, DNA ligase I, NDH II, Topo I and Topo II) and cell cycle proteins (Cyclins A, B1, D1, D2, D3, E, CDK2, CDK4, CDK5 and p21) by western blotting with specific antibodies. The DNA replication proteins which bound to PCNA-Sepharose included DNA polymerase delta and straightepsilon, PCNA, the 37 and 40 kDa subunits of RFC, the 70 kDa subunit of RPA, NDH II and topoisomerase I. No evidence for the binding of DNA polymerase alpha, DNA ligase I or topoisomerase II was obtained. Of the cell cycle proteins investigated, CDK2, CDK4 and CDK5 were bound. This study presents strong evidence that PCNA is a component of protein complexes containing DNA replication, repair and cell cycle regulatory proteins.