Nicotine dependence and smoking topography among black and white women

Res Nurs Health. 1997 Dec;20(6):505-14. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1098-240x(199712)20:6<505::aid-nur5>;2-q.


Nicotine dependence is a complex phenomenon involving behavioral, biological, and pharmacological components that influence smoking cessation rates. The purpose of this study was to characterize the multidimensional aspects of nicotine dependence and cigarette smoking topography behaviors among Black and White women smokers. Thirty-seven women participated in a 2-hr protocol in the General Clinical Research Center. Plasma cotinine to cigarette ratio was significantly associated with three topography variables: total puff duration, total cigarette time, and carbon monoxide (CO) boost. Black women scored higher on plasma cotinine levels, cotinine per cigarette ratio, and CO increase pre- to postcigarette than White women. Implications for clinical practice include assessing nicotine dependence beyond self-reported cigarettes per day to develop more appropriate smoking cessation interventions.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Black or African American*
  • Cotinine / blood
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Nursing Assessment
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Smoking / blood
  • Smoking / ethnology*
  • Smoking Cessation / ethnology
  • Surveys and Questionnaires / standards
  • Time Factors
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / blood
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / ethnology*
  • White People*


  • Cotinine