A random sample of 26,000 Swedish women who were asked about their smoking habits in the early 1960s have now been followed for 26 years with respect to cancer incidence. Most findings regarding tobacco smoking and cancer from studies of men were confirmed also among the women. Elevated relative risk for current smokers compared with women who never smoked regularly were seen for cancers of the lung, upper aerodigestive sites, pancreas, bladder, cervix and all cancers combined, as well as a notably high relative risk for cancers of organs of the urinary tract other than kidney and bladder. Relative risk increased with dose, measured as grams of tobacco smoked per day, for cancers of the upper aerodigestive sites, lung, cervix, bladder, organs of the urinary tract other than kidney and bladder and all cancers combined. For cancers of the lung, bladder and cervix, there was an inverse relationship with age when starting to smoke tobacco. The reported inverse relationship between smoking and endometrial cancer could not be corroborated, nor was there any significant relationship between smoking and colorectal or breast cancer.