Using chromosome banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with painting probes, sequential cytogenetic analysis was performed of two novel prostate cell lines, PZ-HPV-7 and CA-HPV-10, established by human papillomavirus (HPV) 18 DNA transformation. PZ-HPV-7 originates from a normal diploid prostate epithelial cell strain. PZ-HPV-7 progressed from an initial diploid to a hypertetraploid chromosome number with a relative gain of chromosomes 5 and 20 (7 to 8 copies each). Structural changes were limited; 3p- (2 copies), 3q- (1 copy), and possibly a der(16p;12q). CA-HPV-10 originates from an epithelial cell strain derived from a high-grade human prostate cancer specimen, which showed several karyotypic abnormalities including an extra Y chromosome and double minutes (dmin). In early passage the karyotype of CA-HPV-10 appeared unstable with a decreasing number of cells exhibiting dmin. In late passage the dmin were replaced by a large homogeneously staining region (hsr) on 9p+ marker. The hsr was shown by FISH to be of chromosome 1 origin. The modal number was mainly hypertriploid (72, range 69 to 75). Loss of Y was remarkable (0 to 1 copy). Consistent markers included two copies each of del(1)(q12q31) and der(9)t(1;9)(?;p22), and one der(11)t(4;11) (?;q21). HPV type 18 genomic integration sites were identified on 1p for PZ-HPV-7 and on the 9p+ marker for CA-HPV-10. In conclusion, both PZ-HPV-7 and CA-HPV-10 showed clonal cytogenetic changes. These two cell lines constitute a novel in vitro model to study the mechanisms involved in human prostate carcino-genesis.