Graphologists' assessment of extraversion compared with assessment by means of a psychological test

Percept Mot Skills. 1997 Dec;85(3 Pt 1):919-28. doi: 10.2466/pms.1997.85.3.919.


The study investigated whether graphologists can infer extraversion from handwriting correctly. On the basis of three personality questionnaires, three persons (targets) were classified as extraverted and three as introverted. Ten graphologists independently analysed the handwriting of the targets and classified them as extraverted or introverted. Of the 60 (10 graphologists for 6 targets) classifications 58 were correct, which shows the graphologists assessed the classification of extraversion from handwriting. Graphologists agreed substantially on which characteristics of the handwriting were indicative for classification as extraversion or introversion. In each handwriting sample, however, both extraverted and introverted characteristics were present. Eventual classification may be based on the relative frequency of the two kinds of characteristics. Comparative studies like this one indicate that in research one should consider whether graphologists and psychologists share the same notion of extraversion.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Extraversion, Psychological*
  • Female
  • Handwriting*
  • Humans
  • Introversion, Psychological
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Personality Assessment*
  • Personality Tests*
  • Psychometrics
  • Surveys and Questionnaires