Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia, also known as "TRMA" or "Rogers syndrome," is an early-onset autosomal recessive disorder defined by the occurrence of megaloblastic anemia, diabetes mellitus, and sensorineural deafness, responding in varying degrees to thiamine treatment. On the basis of a linkage analysis of affected families of Alaskan and of Italian origin, we found, using homozygosity mapping, that the TRMA-syndrome gene maps to a region on chromosome 1q23.2-23.3 (maximum LOD score of 3.7 for D1S1679). By use of additional consanguineous kindreds of Israeli-Arab origin, the putative disease-gene interval also has been confirmed and narrowed, suggesting genetic homogeneity. Linkage analysis generated the highest combined LOD-score value, 8.1 at a recombination fraction of 0, with marker D1S2799. Haplotype analysis and recombination events narrowed the TRMA locus to a 16-cM region between markers D1S194 and D1S2786. Several heterozygote parents had diabetes mellitus, deafness, or megaloblastic anemia, which raised the possibility that mutations at this locus predispose carriers in general to these manifestations. Characterization of the metabolic defect of TRMA may shed light on the role of thiamine deficiency in such common diseases.