The purpose of this study was to develop a technique for differentiating between recurrent brain tumors and treatment-related changes, such as radiation necrosis, using dynamic MRI. Ninety-five patients with intracranial mass lesions were evaluated using T1-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) MRI at 1.5 T. Pathologies included treatment-related changes (n = 32), primary tumors (n = 41), metastatic tumors (n = 5), meningiomas (n = 4), and mixed primary/treatment related changes (n = 13). Signal enhancement-time curves were analyzed by fitting to a sigmoidal-exponential function. Maximal enhancement rates were calculated as the first derivative of the fitted curve. Based on the maximal enhancement rates, treatment-related changes could be differentiated from primary tumors, metastatic tumors, and meningiomas at the P < .05 confidence level. Lesions of mixed tumor and treatment-related change had intermediate values. Dynamic MRI can be used to differentiate treatment-related changes from primary tumors in previously treated patient populations based on maximal enhancement rates. Individual case studies demonstrate the clinical significance of these findings.