Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease can be inherited either autosomal dominantly or recessively or linked to the X chromosome. X-linked dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX) is a sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy in which males have usually more severe clinical symptoms and decreased nerve conduction velocities than do females. CMTX is usually associated with mutations in exon 2 of the connexin 32 (Cx32) gene. DNA from 35 unrelated CMT patients, without the 17p11.2 duplication, but with median nerve conduction between 30 and 40 m/s, were tested for the presence of Cx32 mutations. The entire coding sequence of the Cx32 gene was explored using a rapid nonradioactive technique to detect single-strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) on large PCR fragments. Thirteen abnormal SSCP profiles were detected and characterized by sequencing. In addition, systematic sequencing of the entire Cx32 coding region in the remaining index cases revealed another mutation that was not detected by SSCP. A total of 14 mutations were found, five of which were not previously reported. These results demonstrate the high frequency (40%) of mutations in the coding region of the Cx32 gene in CMT patients with intermediate MNCV, without 17p11.2 duplications. Most of these mutations (93%) can be detected by SSCP.