Endocrine and nutritional regulation of prenatal growth

Acta Paediatr Suppl. 1997 Nov;423:153-7; discussion 158. doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.1997.tb18399.x.


Fetal growth in late gestation is primarily determined by the functional status of the pathways by which nutrients are transferred from the maternal compartment, across the placenta, and taken up by the fetal tissues. Both the maternal and fetal endocrine systems can influence this pathway at several levels, including regulation of placental metabolism. The primary fetal axis involved in the regulation of fetal growth is the glucose-insulin-insulin-like growth factor I axis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Embryonic and Fetal Development / physiology*
  • Female
  • Glucose / physiology
  • Human Growth Hormone / physiology
  • Humans
  • Insulin / physiology
  • Nutritional Requirements
  • Placenta / metabolism*
  • Placenta / physiology
  • Pregnancy


  • Insulin
  • Human Growth Hormone
  • Glucose