A total of 270 recent nosocomial blood stream isolates of non-Enterobacteriaceae Gram-negative bacilli representing nearly 50 U.S. medical centers were characterized. The numbers of isolates of individual organisms were: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 204), Acinetobacter spp. (n = 48), and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n = 18). MICs were determined using the broth microdilution susceptibility method with 12 antimicrobial agents: piperacillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, cefepime, imipenem, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Based on current National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards breakpoints, rates of resistance to cefepime, ceftazidime, and imipenem were as follows: P. aeruginosa, 3, 9, and 5%; Acinetobacter spp., 2, 37, and 0%; and S. maltophilia, 88.7, 35.3, and 100%, respectively. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was the most active agent against S. maltophilia (100% susceptible). Twenty-eight isolates of P. aeruginosa that expressed high levels of resistance to ceftazidime (MIC, > 256 micrograms/mL) and imipenem (MIC, > 32 micrograms/mL) were examined for potential metallo-beta-lactamase production by polymerase chain reaction and were found to be negative. Molecular typing of P. aeruginosa isolates revealed many patient-unique strains, but also noted clustering of infections due to isolates of the same DNA type, suggesting possible nosocomial transmission in 9 of 14 medical centers. Given the resistance profile and pathogenic potential of these non-enteric Gram-negative bacilli, considerable effort should be exerted to develop and enforce infection control and antimicrobial utilization practices that will limit the spread of these organisms in the hospital environment.