Objective: To study the safety and efficacy of endovascular treatment of acutely ruptured aneurysms with Guglielmi detachable coils.
Methods: From August 1992 until December 1995, 75 patients were referred for endovascular treatment of acutely ruptured aneurysms. There were 49 women and 26 men, with a mean age of 55 years. Patients were classified according to the Hunt and Hess grading system. There were 18 Grade I patients (24%), 13 Grade II patients (17%), 30 Grade III patients (40%), 11 Grade IV patients (15%), and 3 Grade V patients (4%). Fifty patients (66%) were treated within 48 hours, and 64 (85%) were treated within 1 week of hemorrhage. The most frequently treated aneurysms were located at the basilar bifurcation (32%), anterior communicating artery (16%), posterior communicating artery (15%), and ophthalmic segment of the carotid artery (11%). Most of the aneurysms were smaller than 15 mm (77%). Fifty-six percent of the aneurysms had small (4 mm) necks, and 44% had wide (> 4 mm) necks. Clinical follow-up was performed at 6 months, and results were classified according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). Control angiograms were performed immediately, at 6 months, and yearly thereafter.
Results: Immediate angiographic results were considered to be satisfactory in 58 patients (77%) (complete obliteration, 40%; residual neck and dog ear, 37%). Technical failures occurred in 5 patients (7%), and 12 patients experienced some residual opacification of their aneurysms (16%). The procedure-related mortality and morbidity rate was 8%. At 6 months, the outcomes were as follows: GOS score of 1, 50 patients (66.7%); GOS score of 2, 4 patients (5.3%); GOS score of 3, 4 patients (5.3%); and GOS score of 5, 17 patients (22.7%). The main causes of death and disability at 6 months were the direct effect of the initial hemorrhage (9%), delayed ischemia (6.7%), subsequent bleeding (4%), intraprocedural rupture (4%), open surgical complications (3%), and unrelated deaths (4%). Six-month angiographic follow-up data were available for 50 patients (67%). The morphological results were considered to be satisfactory in 44 of these 50 patients (88%) (complete occlusion, 46%; residual neck or dog ear, 42%).
Conclusion: Endovascular treatment of acutely ruptured aneurysms was attempted without clinically significant complication in 92% of the patients. The morphological results were unsatisfactory in 23% of the patients. Complete obliteration of the sac, with or without residual neck, is essential to prevent subsequent bleeding, which occurred in 5% of the patients. The overall outcome at 6 months was similar to that of surgical series, despite a selected group of patients with negative prognostic factors.