Objective: To evaluate stereotactic transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) as a tool for presurgical functional mapping of human motor cortex.
Methods: Transcranial magnetic stimulation using a frameless stereotactic system was performed in two patients with tumors near the central sulcus. TMS motor function maps were plotted on the patients' three-dimensional volumetric magnetic resonance imaging data and compared with direct electrical cortical stimulation at surgery with the patient under local anesthesia.
Results: Stereotactic TMS was well tolerated by both patients and was consistent with known somatotopic representation of human motor cortex. The results demonstrated a good correlation between the TMS and electrical cortical stimulation maps, with all TMS responses eliciting more than 75% of the maximum motor evoked potential falling within 1 cm of the electrical cortical stimulation site.
Conclusions: Our findings indicate that stereotactic TMS is feasible and can provide accurate noninvasive localization of cortical motor function. It may prove to be a useful method for presurgical planning.