Predicting change in activities of daily living: a longitudinal study of the oldest old in Sweden

J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 1997 Nov;52(6):P294-302. doi: 10.1093/geronb/52b.6.p294.


We examined predictors of stability and decline in activities of daily living (ADLs) and mobility in a population-based sample of the oldest old. Respondents were people aged 84 to 90 living in South Central Sweden. Predictors were drawn from three domains: sociodemographic variables, vitality, and physical and psychological health. Using a logistic regression model, we sought to identify variables that were associated with changes in functioning. Over the 2-year interval, we found significant main effects for stability in ADL functioning for three variables: residential status (e.g., living in the community), subjective health, and mastery (n = 142). For mobility, we identified three variables associated with stability: lung function, subjective health, and mastery (n = 137). Over the 4-year period we found that residential status was significantly associated with stability in ADL performance (n = 89), while age, marital status, grip strength, and mastery were significant predictors for stability in mobility (n = 90). The findings can direct researchers toward interventions within particular residential environments that maintain a sense of mastery and an individual's aggressive attitude toward challenging situations.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Activities of Daily Living*
  • Aged*
  • Cohort Studies
  • Depressive Disorder / diagnosis
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Health Status
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Residential Facilities
  • Rural Population
  • Sweden
  • Urban Population