Myxoid and round cell liposarcoma represents a morphological spectrum in which tumor progression from low-grade myxoid to high-grade round cell areas is frequently observed. A distinctive t(12;16)(q13;p11) reciprocal translocation rearranges the CHOP gene localized to 12q13 in most cases. Data concerning the occurrence of cell cycle aberrations in this subset of mesenchymal malignancies are very limited. Therefore, we analyzed a histologically homogeneous series of 21 cases of myxoid and round cell liposarcoma. The p53 pathway was studied by investigating the TP53 gene and protein, mdm2 protein, and p21Waf1 protein. The Rb-cyclin D pathway was analyzed by studying the pRb protein, the p16MTS1 gene, cyclin D1, cyclin D3, p27Kip1, cdk4, and cdk6 proteins. In contrast with the rare involvement of the TP53 gene in well differentiated liposarcoma, aberrations of the TP53 gene were observed in approximately 30% of cases of myxoid and round cell liposarcoma. Notably, mdm2 overexpression was seen in 56% of cases and correlated with histological grade, therefore indicating a possible role in tumor progression. Abnormalities involving the Rb-cyclin D pathway were observed in more than 90% of cases. pRb loss was present in one-third of cases and, at variance with that observed in other subsets of sarcoma, overexpression of cyclin Ds represented a rare event. Interestingly, upregulation of either cdk4 or cdk6 was demonstrated in 85% of cases.