A defect in apoptotic signal transmission through CD95 is an essential genetic mechanism for lymphoproliferation and autoimmunities in lpr or gld mice. However, disease manifestations are largely affected by the host genetic background. To identify and map such host genes modifying lpr gene effect, ie, the lpr modifier (Lprm) genes, 82 MRL/lpr x (MRL/lpr x C3H/lpr) F1 mice were subjected to immunopathological and genetical analyses. High-grade vasculitis and glomerulonephritis among backcross mice were observed in separate groups of mice. Microsatellite analysis revealed that there were two host genes affecting the occurrence of vasculitis, Lprm1 (chromosome 4) and Lprm2 (chromosome 3). A recessive MRL allele at Lprm1 enhanced vasculitis to occur in both sexes, whereas that of Lprm2 inhibited its development selectively in females. Genotype combinations of these two genes explained the severity of vasculitis in crosses of MRL/lpr and C3H/lpr mice and also the vasculitis-prone recombinant inbred strain McH5/lpr. A recessive MRL allele at Lprm3 (chromosome 14) suppressed glomerulonephritis. The weight of the spleen was increased by a recessive MRL allele at Lprm4 (chromosome 5) yielding a logarithm of odds score of 2.02 in a quantitative trait locus analysis. In contrast, the weight of axillary lymph nodes was increased by a recessive MRL allele at a locus on chromosome 2, but its presence was not supported by the quantitative trait locus analysis. The titer of anti-dsDNA autoantibody was controlled by the locus Lprm5 on chromosome 16, which had an logarithm of odds score of 3.41. Possible candidate genes for Lprm genes deduced from their map locations are discussed and compared with the autoimmunity genes reported thus far. In conclusion, autoimmune disease manifestations by the lpr mutation are affected by multiple host genes separately.