Parental antagonism, relatedness asymmetries, and genomic imprinting

Proc Biol Sci. 1997 Nov 22;264(1388):1657-62. doi: 10.1098/rspb.1997.0230.


The theory of inclusive fitness can be modified to consider separate coefficients of relatedness for an individual's maternal and paternal alleles. A gene is said to have parentally antagonistic effects if it has an inclusive fitness benefit when maternally derived, but an inclusive fitness cost when paternally derived (or vice versa). Parental antagonism favours the evolution of alleles that are expressed only when maternally derived or only when paternally derived (genomic imprinting).

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Evolution, Molecular
  • Female
  • Genomic Imprinting*
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / genetics
  • Male
  • Mathematical Computing
  • Mice
  • Models, Genetic*
  • Receptor, IGF Type 2 / genetics
  • Sex Factors


  • Receptor, IGF Type 2
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor II