FKBP52 (HSP56, p59, HBI) is the 59-kDa immunosuppressant FK506-binding protein and has peptidyl prolyl isomerase as well as a chaperone-like activity in vitro. FKBP52 associates with the heat shock protein HSP90 and is included in the steroid hormone receptor complexes in vivo. FKBP52 possesses a well conserved phosphorylation site for casein kinase II (CK2) that was previously shown to be associated with HSP90. Here we examined whether FKBP52 is phosphorylated by CK2 both in vivo and in vitro. Recombinant rabbit FKBP52 was phosphorylated by purified CK2. We expressed and purified deletion mutants of FKBP52 to determine the site(s) phosphorylated by CK2. Thr-143 in the hinge I region was identified as the major phosphorylation site for CK2. A synthetic peptide corresponding to this region was phosphorylated by CK2, and the peptide competitively inhibited the phosphorylation of other substrates by CK2. The [32P]phosphate labeling of FKBP52-expressing cells revealed that the same site is also phosphorylated in vivo. FK506 binding to FKBP52 did not affect the phosphorylation by CK2 and, conversely, the FK506-binding activity of FKBP52 was not affected by the phosphorylation. Most importantly, CK2-phosphorylated FKBP52 did not bind to HSP90. These results indicate that CK2 phosphorylates FKBP52 both in vitro and in vivo and thus may regulate the protein composition of chaperone-containing complexes such as those of steroid receptors and certain protein kinases.