In a previous communication we reported that glucose deprivation from KHRB medium resulted in a marked stimulation of Ca2+ uptake by brain tissue, suggesting a relationship between glucose and Ca2+ homeostasis in brain tissue. Experiments were carried out to investigate the significance of glucose in Ca2+ transport in brain cells. The replacement of glucose with either D-methylglucoside or 2-deoxyglucose, non-metabolizable analogues of glucose, resulted in stimulation of Ca2+ uptake just as by glucose deprivation. These data show that glucose metabolism rather than glucose transfer was necessary to stimulate Ca2+ uptake in brain tissue. Inhibition of glucose metabolism with either NaF, NaCN, or iodoacetate resulted in stimulation of Ca2+ uptake similar to that produced by glucose deprivation. These results lend further support for the concept that glucose metabolism is essential for Ca2+ homeostasis in brain. Anoxia promotes glucose metabolism through glycolytic pathway to keep up with the demand for ATP by cellular processes (the Pasteur effect). Incubation of brain slices under nitrogen gas did not alter Ca2+ uptake by brain tissue, as did glucose deprivation and the inhibitors of glucose metabolism. We conclude that glucose metabolism resulting in the synthesis of ATP is essential for Ca2+ homeostasis in brain. Verapamil and nifedipine which block voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, did not alter Ca2+ uptake stimulated by glucose deprivation, indicating that glucose deprivation-enhanced Ca2+ uptake was not mediated by Ca2+ channels. Tetrodotoxin which specifically blocks Na2+ channels, abolished Ca2+ uptake enhanced by glucose deprivation, but had no effect on Ca2+ uptake in presence of glucose (controls). These results suggest that stimulation of Ca2+ uptake by glucose deprivation may be related to Na2+ transfer via NaCa exchange in brain.